Lol, never know about those gingers! Actually in the ground blind today. 30-40mph wind gusts.im old enough to know I won’t bounce if I hit the ground, so I avoid the trees on high wind days. Already have a few big trees blown over.
What do I know?
I am a force multiplier. Like Old George said in the movie “The Postman” “I know things”
If you have not seen it, watch it soon. Men will like it, ladies its a bit nasty and gross, but Kevin Kosner and Tom Petty are in it.
EQuinn, Your mind set is what is screwed, and if you do not learn things, you will get screwed.
Build a library on what you do not know. Butchery, medicine, plants. reloading. If all you have is your body, it wil be taken, but if you have knowledge you surpass the worth of your body.
I spent decades training soldiers in common task training. You can get online and find the CCT.
The very first thing I taught the woman, kid and grand kid, all girls is Escape and evasion.
here is your start:
This stuff is free and will save your ass
I suggest printing some of these out for various kits/locations.
General Water Disinfection: If water is murky, allow to settle and filter through cloth, etc. before treating.
Bring water to a rolling boil for one minute. To improve taste, aerate or add a pinch of salt. At altitudes over 6,562 feet (2,000 meters), boil water for 3 minutes.
Chlorine dioxide tablets:
Use one tablet per quart/liter of water. Splash water onto container’s threads. Allow to react for 4 hours in an opaque container or in the dark. Will take longer if water is cold or cloudy. Or, after at least 30 minutes (longer if water is cold or cloudy), filter to remove cryptosporidium. Low to moderate effectiveness against cryptosporidium when used alone.
Chlorine dioxide drops (Aquamira):
Place 7 drops of part A and 7 drops of part B (activator) in mixing cap. If water is cloudy or tinted, use 15 drops of each. Let mixture react for 5 minutes. Add contents to 1 quart/liter of water. Shake to mix (and splash water on container’s threads) and let stand 15 minutes. If water is cold, cloudy or tinted, let stand 30 minutes. Filter to remove cryptosporidium. For long term storage of chlorine dioxide drops, place in refrigerator. Do not freeze.
Note on iodine disinfection: Not effective against cryptosporidium; low to moderate effectiveness against protozoa. Water disinfected with iodine is not recommended for pregnant women, people with thyroid problems, those with hypersensitivity to iodine, [women over 50?,] or for continuous use for more than a few weeks at a time.
Liquid 2% tincture of iodine:
Add 5 drops per quart/liter. Splash the water onto the container’s threads. Let stand for at least 30 minutes if temperature is 77F (25C). Add 10 drops if water is cold or cloudy and increase standing time. (Double contact time for each 10 degrees below 77F.) Addition of vitamin C AFTER purification is complete will remove iodine taste.
Iodine tablets (i.e., Potable Aqua):
Use two tablets per quart/liter of water and cap loosely to allow a small amount of leakage. Wait 5 minutes. Shake container to allow screw threads on the closure to be moistened, then tighten cap. Wait 30 minutes before drinking. If water is cloudy, double the number of tablets. Lengthen contact time if water is cold. If water is extremely cold—below 41F (5C)—water should be warmed and contact time increased further.
Iodine crystals (i.e., Polar Pure):
Warning: crystalline iodine at 4-8 grams is a lethal dose if accidentally swallowed in a single dose. Keep out of the reach of children.
To prepare a stock of crystalline iodine saturated solution, place 4-8 grams of crystalline iodine into a 1-2 oz container and fill with water (1oz=6 teaspoons). Shake the bottle vigorously for 1 minute. Allow several additional minutes for the iodine to maximally dissolve in the available water. Some crystals should always be visible; if they totally dissolve, then more crystals should be added to the container to insure that iodine saturation of the stock solution has been achieved.
If the water to be treated is clear, add 13 ml of saturated iodine solution – liquid above the crystals, not the crystals themselves – per quart/liter (5 ml= 1 teaspoon. 13 ml = about 2.5 teaspoons). In cloudy water, add 26 ml of saturated solution per quart/liter.
Splash water on container’s threads and allow the solution to stand 20 minutes before drinking when the water temperature is 68-77F (20-25C). Increase the standing time with colder water. For each 10 degrees less than 77F (25C), allow the water to stand for double the time before drinking.
Polar Pure instructions: Fill this iodine bottle with water and shake. Solution is ready to use in 1 hour. Pour required capfuls of solution (green dot of dosage table on side of bottle indicates capfuls required) into 1 quart/liter of water. (Double dosage for cloudy water.) Let stand 20 minutes before use. Water to be treated that is colder than 68F will require longer treatment time. Juice mixes or flavorings can be added AFTER treatment of water is complete. To destroy Giardia cysts, drinking water must be 68F (20C) minimum.
Tips: Refill iodine bottle with water after each use so solution will be ready for use 1 hour later. Solution in bottle is capable of disinfecting between 2 and 6 quarts/liters of water at one time before refilling. Crystals in bottle make enough solution to treat 2,000 quarts water. Once the bottle is filled with water, avoid allowing it to freeze as bottle could crack. However, effectiveness of Polar Pure is not altered by freezing. Solution is effective as long as any iodine crystals are visible.
Note on Sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Not effective against cryptosporidium; low to moderate effectiveness against protozoa.
Sodium hypochlorite (bleach):
Use 2 drops of non-scented 5.25% (4-6%) chlorine bleach per quart/liter of clear water. Double the amount for cloudy or very cold water. Mix treated water thoroughly and splash on container’s threads. Allow to stand, preferably covered, for 30 minutes. [8 drops is about 1/8 teaspoon.] The effectiveness of chlorine at killing pathogens diminishes rapidly at lower temperatures.
The water should have a slight chlorine odor. If not, repeat the dosage and allow the water to stand for an additional 15 minutes. If the treated water has too strong a chlorine taste, allow to stand uncovered for a few hours and/or pour back and forth from one clean container to another.
Bleach can be stored for about 6 months between 50F and 70F before it will begin to degrade at a rate of 20% per year until totally degraded to salt and water.
Granular calcium hypochlorite (Pool Shock):
Calcium hypochlorite has the advantage of extended shelf life. If kept dry, cool, and in an airtight container, it may be stored up to 10 years with minimal degradation.
Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water. The mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight.
To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated. This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water (1.28 ounce per gallon) to be disinfected. To remove any objectionable chlorine odor, aerate the disinfected water by pouring it back and forth from one clean container to another.
To make a 5% chlorine solution to use the drop method of water disinfection, add and dissolve ½ teaspoon of 65-70% calcium hypochlorite to ¾ cup of water. This will decay at the same rate as bleach.
Note on artificial ultraviolet disinfection: Water turbidity (i.e., the amount of suspended & colloidal solids contained in the water to be treated) must be low, such that the water is clear, for UV purification to work well. Also, water treated with UV still has the microbes present in the water, only with their means for reproduction turned “off”. In the event that such UV-treated water containing neutered microbes is exposed to visible light (specifically, wavelengths of light over 330-500 nm) for any significant period of time, a process known as photoreactivation can take place, whereby there becomes a possibility for repairing the damage in the bacteria’s reproduction DNA, potentially rendering them once more capable of reproducing and causing disease. Artificially (via electric bulb) UV-treated water must therefore not be exposed to visible light for any significant period after UV treatment, before consumption, to avoid ingesting reactivated and dangerous microbes. However, water disinfected by exposure to natural sunlight does not seem to result in a revival or regrowth of harmful bacteria, even after prolonged storage periods.
SODIS (solar water disinfection):
Place water in transparent plastic bottles (preferably PET or polyethylene terephtalate). First oxygenate water by shaking partially-filled capped bottles prior to filling all the way. Expose the completely water-filled and capped bottles to sunlight, preferably on a reflective surface such as a corrugated metal roof to maximize solar radiation or on a black surface to maximize temperature. Also slant bottles slightly to maximize the exposure. Leave bottles in place for at least 6 hours in full sun (40C/104F water temperature or above), or for 2 days in partial sunlight or on colder days. The combination of the two effects (UVA and heat) kills microbes. Warmer water temperatures speed up the disinfection process. However, bacteria, viruses, giardia and cryptosporidia are killed by UV-A radiation even when water is cooler.
Bacteria are highly sensitive to UV-A radiation (wavelength 320-400nm) and are quickly killed by sunlight. Viruses are slightly more resistant, but are also killed within the recommended 6 hours (at 40C/104F water temperature or above). Parasites are less sensitive to sunlight. While giardia cysts are rendered inactive within 6 hours, cryptosporidia cysts must be exposed to direct sunlight for at least 10 hours before they are neutralized. Amoebas do not die until the water temperature has been warmer than 50°C/122F for over an hour.
Bottles should be as new as possible (less than six months of sun exposure) and have no or few scratches. A transparent bag might also be used. Drive all air out of the bag and place on a black surface or on corrugated iron sheet, tile roof, etc. Containers used for SODIS should be as flat as possible with a water depth less than 6 or at most 10 cm. Use of a temperature sensor is helpful. To check water’s turbidity, place the filled bottle on top of a newspaper headline. Look through the bottom of the bottle from the neck at the top and through the water. If the letters of the headline are not readable, then turbidity must be reduced through flocculation, sedimentation, or filtration. Finally, the SODIS method does not work satisfactorily during lengthy periods of rain. Instead, collect rain water.
Pasteurization and the WAPI:
A Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI) is a device that indicates when water has reached pasteurization temperature and is safe to drink. A small polycarbonate tube contains a wax that melts when water is heated enough to be pasteurized (65˚C/149˚F). This saves much time and fuel by eliminating the need to bring water to a boil. Pasteurization can be effected by heating a blackened water container with a solar reflector/cooker, etc. A WAPI can also be useful during SODIS.
Ratios for sanitizing water with bleach or iodine:
1 quart/liter bleach: 2 drops; iodine: 5 drops double if cloudy
1 gallon bleach: 8 drops (1/8 teaspoon); iodine: 20 drops double if cloudy
5 gallons bleach: ½ teaspoon; iodine: 1 teaspoon double if cloudy
10 gallons bleach: 1 teaspoon; iodine: 2 teaspoons double if cloudy
55 gallons bleach: 5 ½ teaspoons; iodine: 11 teaspoons double if cloudy
Liquid Measure Conversion
1/2 fl oz = 1 tbsp = 3 tsp
1/8 cup 1 fl oz 2 tbsp 6 tsp
1/4 cup 2 fl oz 4 tbsp 12 tsp
1/2 cup 4 fl oz 8 tbsp 24 tsp
1/4 qt 1/2 pt 1 cup 8 fl oz
1/2 qt 1 pt 2 cups 16 fl oz
1/4 gal 1 qt 2 pt 4 cups 32 fl oz
1/2 gal 2 qt 4 pt 8 cups 64 fl oz
1 gal 4 qt 8 pt 16 cups 128 fl oz